International Games Week October 29 – November 4

Talking points: Games and theory of mind

Posted on August 12, 2013

Hello folks! This is the third of that series of more detailed talking points we mentioned. Here's the summary from that original post:

Further, games develop and reward theory of mind - the mental models we each have of what other people are thinking.

Games are culture that you have to share, and which reward intense engagement with other people. That in and of itself fosters the ability to model what other people know, might be thinking, and are more or less likely to do - known as "theory of mind". (Because the key capacity is the ability to theorise about other minds... Which, when you think about it, is a truly extraordinary achievement: to be able to model something as complex as a human mind inside another human mind. Yes, the process is fallible and we resort to all sorts of cheaty shorthands, formalised conventions and external encodings. But that it's possible at all is pretty incredible.)

Two things make games uniquely good at fostering this crucial (perhaps most crucial) aspect of intelligence.

First, as alluded to in the last Talking Point post, games license a closeness of attention that is often inappropriate and even uncomfortable outside the magic circle of a game.

Second, and relatedly, games like Werewolf and poker explicitly require bluffing, misdirection and outright lying. Not only do these acts require the exercise of theory of mind (you can't lie convincingly without an idea of what others might find plausible) in and of themselves, but because they are built into the structure of the game, they also require you to be able to spot them - which requires even more active reading of your opponent, because you're not even sure what their goals are. Are they trying to persuade you to fold, or to increase your bet? Are they trying to persuade you to eliminate that person because they sincerely believe that their target is a Werewolf? Because they know? Or because they're a Werewolf themselves?

Speaking purely personally for a moment, my own ongoing fascination with Werewolf and similar social deception games lies in precisely this learning about lying, and even practising it. This isn't because I am comfortable with falsehood - quite the contrary; though I'm quietly spoken, if anything I'm slightly too honest when I speak outside games (though thankfully the people I'm close to value that quality too), and my engagement with the wider world has always been through organisations that have strong commitments to independent, objective and rigorously verified truth-telling (particularly Amnesty International). But engaging with deception, understanding how it works and how it develops a consuming momentum that can entrap you, has made me both less susceptible to, and more understanding of, liars - and thereby improved the quality of my honesty, because what I'm saying is less likely to derive from ignorance or other people's false statements. In other words, lying for fun has made me a more truthful person.

(Or is that just what I want you to think?)

It makes sense: there are few things more interesting than people. If games let us think about people, what they're thinking and feeling, what they might do, and the entanglement of all those things, maybe they're not entirely frivolous cultural pursuits after all...?

 

(Click here for our fourth Talking Points post - "Games, seriousness, poetry and fun".)

(P.S. This being a relatively short Talking Points post, I don't want anyone to feel shortchanged. So here - have another bonus TED talk, this time on the neuroscience of making moral judgments about intentions. You come across such interesting stuff when you start taking games seriously...)

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